點入購買【拉子時代】

串聯每部電影和每段感情的時空背景

Sarah Waters:粉絲集中營

有關華老師的書評、影評、動態,豐富又多樣,這裡是中文網站最狂熱的一站。

人物故事: 友同友直友多聞

特別喜歡考古,網路上找不到的中文資料,從英文大海裡找出來。

電影和電視,橘色眼光來說戲

講電影的網站太多了,這裡只談同志主題,專注到好像是世上只有同志影片。

社會: 電腦看久了,總得走出門外

不喜歡談政治,但是很生氣明明一樣繳稅,權利就是矮一階。

2008/03/31

Queer AD:1

我想轉換心情,決定先換一下話題,看看目前的商業設計.這裡幾款平面稿都與同性相吸有關.

這幅是取材自Emoticons(表情符號).我不太確定女性是不是真用"( )"來表示,但按照Emoticons的象形造字原則來看,確實很傳神.



改變磁鐵傳統的南北極相吸?太勉強,不是個好創意.









想顛覆插頭插座刻板印象?這幅還是不成功.


















我第一次看到這二張稿便開心地大笑.這是以女男同志為對象的色情電話廣告.捨棄直接以肉體為訴求,改用電話筒代替演出.既有幽默感,又不負廣告應傳達的任務.

2008/03/29

Any Firefox pro?

我使用Firefox瀏覽器,不知出了什麼問題,完全打不開,不能移除,也不能重灌.我收集許多參考資料都在Firefox的書籤上,現在不知道如何把它們救回來.這是我寫部落格以來碰到的第二次最嚴重的科技災難,第一次是寫Fingersmith系列某一篇,已經快要寫完了,居然不小心刪除.我捶心肝之餘,只好一邊罵一邊把文章重寫一遍.

最近有點無心寫下去,有沒有高手可以指點一下?

2008/03/24

More Nim's Island Trailers

茱蒂近期新片<Nim's Island>將於四月四日於美國上映.我發現他們前一陣子在美國推出第二支較簡短的電影預告片,把重點全放在女童星,茱蒂的角色變成沒有來由的意外訪客.希望只是我多心,電影公司並不是因為茱蒂出櫃而把她的宣傳比重降低.如果只是因為第一支預告片已建立茱蒂的角色,那麼我可以接受第二支純粹是吸引小孩及一般家長的目光.



相形之下,我比較喜歡英國版預告片的處理方式,三個角色的比重恰如其分,而且把小女孩沉醉書中幻想世界的部份特別加強.


這是拍攝的幕後故事.這部片對小童星的體能要求極大,她一定會成為新時代少女的另一種典範.茱蒂也很了不起,年紀不小了,還能潛水在水中對戲.

2008/03/23

Queer Women in classical art : 8

Ladies of Llangollen

畫家James Henry Lynch以肖像聞名,他被提出來的原因並不是因為他的作品有鮮明的女女情慾,而是他畫中的兩位老婦人,早在18世紀便實踐女女共同生活的知名典範,而且持續五十年之久.

二位主角:Butler, Lady Eleanor(1739-1829)及Sarah Ponsonby (1755-1831),雙方家族都源自英格蘭但是定居於愛爾蘭的望族.Ponsonby年幼便失去雙親,先後由她的繼母及親戚照料,後來她被送至位於Kilkenny的寄者學校.1768年,她結識了Butler,她是Kilkenny當地的貴族子女.Butler曾在法國就學,年長Ponsonby16歲,兩人教學相長,並成為密友.到了1773年,Ponsonby離開Kilkenny,兩人不斷通信,決定要一起私奔.

1778年第一次行動失敗,她們被雙方家族帶回隔離,Butler被要求進入修道院,Ponsonby被強迫成婚.她們抗拒這些安排,還好家人態度軟化,1780年她們終於成功地跨海至北威爾斯,落腳在Llangollen,而且一住就是50年.她們的居處被稱之為Plas Newydd.兩人靠著親友們的經濟支援,過著簡樸的生活,平日休閒活動就是閱讀、寫作、園藝、騎馬.她們雖穿著女士的裙裝,但上身總是穿著男士穿的背心;她們在書信是共同署名的.她們被世人稱為:"Ladies of Llangollen"

曾流傳於19世紀的Boston marriage,用以形容二個女人同居,經濟獨立但無性關係的生活方式.當時的文人以這個角度看待她們的關係,造訪她們的名人不計其數.但根據她們之間通信的親蜜用字,現代人推論她們應該是女同的前輩.

有趣的是,她們不斷地修建房子,卻直到1819年才買下房子,到1831年兩人都去世為止.後來,房子被另一對女子Amelia Lolley及Charlotte Andrew所買下,並且仿傚前輩的生活方式.接下來幾經轉手,終由當地市政單位收購改為博物館開放給一般大眾.當英國開放同志婚姻時,有些人便提議,同志婚禮應該在Plas Newydd來舉行.


以下為Llangollen的地圖,將左邊"+"多按幾下,便能將地圖拉近,而且可選擇觀看衛星照片:

檢視較大的地圖

上一篇:古典藝術中的女女情:7
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2008/03/22

Delights

我們家此刻充滿喜悅,像是突然卸下千斤重擔.我不想明說是什麼樣的喜悅,因為在這個部落格是不討論政治.但是我想形容那種感覺很像看到結婚照裡反映的幸福感,對未來充滿希望的憧憬--即使那是素昧平生的陌生人.

看看Flickr裡的:Gay Weddings'photos

2008/03/21

Queer Women in classical art : 7

我從國外一個舊海報網站找到一些老照片及畫作,時間從19世紀末到30年代.這幾幅作品稱不上是古典藝術,不妨視為通俗的女同歷史紀錄.













攝影約於1820年問世,這張照片約攝於1890年,是一位著男裝的女子親吻女伴的合影.另一幅畫作約在1894,左邊女子緊握著右邊女子的手心,可惜右邊女子低頭狀似憂鬱.

這幅據說是1908年的畫作,像是過火的道晚安之吻.























1912年的女子雙人探戈,及1919年出現穿褲裝的率性女子.

這幅1935年的負面作品,醜化右邊的中年女子,把女女情畫得像權力宰制.






















這兩幅都是1939年的作品,頗能呼應瑪琳黛德麗在30年代的跨性別裝扮的熱潮.

上一篇:古典藝術中的女女情:6
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2008/03/18

upcoming topic

今年以來本站流量最高的日期出現在3月16日-我有點啼笑皆非.好吧,這是個圖像吃香的時代.

接下來茱蒂的專題將要推出她的電視迷你影集作品:<The Blood of Others>.我目前實在無法從國外購得原版,只收藏到網路分享的檔案.這部作品出奇冷門,在主要視頻網站都未見得.為了「推廣研究」,我會將全版影片放到Dailymotion (哎,Stage6已經關了).本片有幾個特色,茱蒂可能是第二次在片中身亡(第一次應該是<Echoes of Summer>).劇中角色性格我很不喜歡,是我第一次想罵她是笨女人,雖然她是個英雄--意外成為英雄.以當時茱蒂的身材演出服裝設計師有點勉強,但是她在片中的臉部特寫已能看到絕代美女的樣貌,再加上目不暇及的服裝造型,她可以為此片專出一本寫真集.另外,小小預告:我會解讀片中一小段雙性戀意涵.

2008/03/16

Queer Women in classical art : 6

Albert Marquet (1875-1947)

這位道貌岸然的法國畫家,其作品原以自然風景寫生為特色,誰都沒料到他畫了一系列以Lesbian couple為題,彷彿黑白素描的畫作,有位收藏家便為文The secret art of Albert Marquet,提到這位畫家的秘密創作.

這裡挑出部份作品淺酌即止,其他作品可至Idbury Prints詳見,Lesbian couple系列集中在第4頁及第5頁.































上一篇:古典藝術中的女女情:5
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2008/03/13

Jodie Foster stalker arrested after bomb threats

今天許多報紙都報導又有一位瘋狂影迷騷擾茱蒂,為了她而寄出恐嚇信,揚言要炸燬機場.這裡引用路透社的中文報導(我完全沒更動其中的文字),如果要看其他各家英文報導,這裡有Full Coverage

美國男子恐嚇機場被捕 曾騷擾朱迪·福斯特多年

路透波士頓3月11日電---幾年來一直給奧斯卡獎得主,女演員朱迪·福斯特(Jodie Foster)寄恐嚇信的犯罪嫌疑人周二被捕。他被指控向洛杉磯的一個機場寄恐嚇信,聲稱要製造爆炸事件。

這位名叫Michael Smegal的42歲男子是馬薩諸塞州Holliston市人,他被馬薩諸塞州聯邦法院指控在12月初發信恐嚇Van Nuys機場。

一份證詞顯示,2007年9月到2008年之間,Smegal把100多封幾乎一模一樣的恐嚇信寄給了一些明星、商界人士,還寄給了機場和洛杉磯周圍的其他地方,信中都提到了朱迪·福斯特。

福斯特是兩屆奧斯卡獎得主,1988年因在《被告》("The Accused")一片中扮演一位遭遇強奸的女子獲得了她的第一個奧斯卡獎。2004年她開始收到從馬薩諸塞州寄出的匿名信。

證詞顯示,2005年,Smegal向警方供認這些信是他發的,並且保證不會再犯。

如果被定罪,Smegal將面臨10年監禁,隨後是3年的監督釋放(supervised release)。同時並處25萬美元罰金。

Orange 眉批:
這不是茱蒂第一次碰到瘋狂影迷騷擾.當年辛克里寄了許多信給茱蒂,甚至跟蹤她到耶魯大學十次之多,最後在得不到回應的情況下,決定槍擊雷根總統以「得到她的尊敬」.最可怕的是,像是傳染病一般,就在槍擊事件四天後,還有第二個人接續辛克里的計劃,甚至幾年後,一個精神錯亂的女人也想殺了茱蒂.

照理這些事件會令人為茱蒂感到同情,可是隨著辛克里在媒體上大放厥詞,事情開始變了調.就有些人無聊嚼舌根,用開玩笑的方式進行問答:「為什麼孟買特阿里阿格卡要射殺教宗?」、「為什麼以色列要入侵黎巴嫩?」..........最後的答案總是一樣:「因為要取悅茱蒂福斯特.」

在茱蒂的生命中,有二件事她以前總是避免提及,一件是性傾向,另一項就是辛克里事件.

Queer Women in classical art : 5

Tony Minartz (1870 - 1944)

這位我們不太熟悉的法國畫家與羅特列克一樣,都喜歡描繪紅磨坊之類的娛樂場所.他有二張作品直接以女同舞廳為名,讓我們得見20世紀初在巴黎盛行的女同次文化.

(左圖)Lesbian Dance Hall, Paris






Le Bal, 1902













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2008/03/12

The Liminal Icongraphy : part 3

The Liminal Iconography (若隱若現的身影:下篇)
by Christina Lane

23) Certain photographs in the popular press also play up Foster's ambiguity by showing her features as partially hidden. In one Rolling Stone photograph, Foster stands slightly off-center, wearing a shimmery silver outfit, with shadows dividing her face. She presses her hand up against what appears to be a glass window (Hirshen 35). This photo, in particular, suggests that Foster is pressed under a microscope slide, asking the readers of her image, "Who am I?"The shadows that frame her cause her identity to seem slightly unknowable. One might assume that Foster's refusal to be labeled in interviews or photographs positions her outside the discussion of sexual identity. Indeed, instead she finds herself right in the middle of the discussion, but merely occupying an ambiguous and enigmatic space within it.

某些通俗媒體也將她的身影拍攝成部份隱沒呼應她雌雄莫辨的特性.在某期滾石雜誌,福斯特略在畫面中心之外,穿著銀色閃亮的衣服,臉上陰影半遮.她把手靠著類似玻璃窗的面板.這張照片像是暗示她被放置於顯微鏡下,詢問讀者:我是誰?她臉上的陰影讓她不易被辨認.我們或許可推論福斯特並不想在訪問中還是照片裡,讓自己顯得很不願討論性傾向.她反而要處在議題之中,但是包覆著模糊與謎樣的介質.

24) Foster appears to contribute to the ambiguity of her persona in part by eluding questions in interviews that might reveal too much. One Redbook interviewer says, "Jodie Foster is skilled at avoiding questions and dodging comments on forbidden territory--specifically the realm of two prohibited topics.Prohibited Topic Number One involves everything about her romantic life and inclinations" (Segell 79). The fact that the author brings up her romantic life in terms of "inclinations" provides just one example of how the media throw Foster's sexual identity into question. (The second prohibited topic happens to be John Hinckley Jr.) Foster draws a line on her romantic life, refusing to indulge in the conversation. This same strategy of eluding the public's desire to "know" her -- to categorize her sexually and socially-- can be seen in her choice of film roles. Very rarely does she play a character where the film is allowed to "suture in" a romantic happy ending with Foster riding of into the sunset on the back of Prince Charming's horse.Most of her films conclude atypically for Hollywood, echoing the diasporic characteristic of much of lesbian fiction and film. In Little Man Tate, the first script that Foster chose to direct herself in, her character never finds herself confronted with a love interest, but instead concentrates on her relationship with her son.

福斯特善於避答採訪中可能進一步透露的問題,這顯然是造就她性傾向模糊的原因之一.Redbook的採訪人就提到:茱蒂善於迥避禁忌的問題和評論,特別在兩大議題上.頭條禁忌是任何有關她的感情生活和性傾向.這位作者將她的感情生活和性傾向相提並論,這顯示媒體如何對福斯特性傾向起疑的一例.(第二項禁忌是所有與辛克里相關者) 福斯特在她的感情生活畫一條紅線,不願意多加談論.她在電影角色的選擇也採取同樣策略,消除大眾想要「了解她」的慾望,以免在性傾向還是族群上將她分類.她在影片中很少出現皆大歡喜的愛情結局:就是那種福斯特坐在白馬王子身後一起騎向落日的結局.大部份她的影片是反好萊塢式的結局,比較像是女同小說或電影中的流亡性格.<Little Man Tate 我的天才寶貝(1991) >是她第一部自導自演的作品,她的角色始終沒有遇到心上人,劇本聚焦在她和兒子間的關係.

25) One of the aspects that makes Foster's persona so provocative is that, although she retreats when asked about her own romantic life, as she gains power in Hollywood, she chooses to address sexuality as her major subject of exploration. When asked by Redbook what she wants to do in the film world, she picks "the subject of how absurd -- and false -- Hollywood's renderings of women's sexuality are on screen. She finds it 'laughable' that women in movies can manage a shattering orgasm after about 20 seconds" (Segell 79).

有一件事情讓福斯特的銀幕形象引起爭議:雖然她避而不談自己的感情生活,但是她在好萊塢獲得主導權後,她卻表示要以性議題為電影探討的方向.當Redbook訪問她未來想要拍攝的題材,她想探討「好萊塢是如何在銀幕上荒謬錯誤地呈現女性情慾」.看到電影上把女人描述成可以有20分鐘駭人的性高潮,她覺得很可笑.

26) I'm waiting to see a movie about the women I know -- a movie that explores the dynamics of why that other person completes you, why you're together. I'd like to explore female sexuality in a way that people don't get to see on screen. (79)

「我期望看到有一部電影是關於我所了解的女性,能發掘出為什麼這個人能讓你人生圓滿,為什麼你們會一起相守.我想探討銀幕上未曾表現的女性情慾.」

27) Foster's ideas about representing desire and sexuality on screen are most certainly women-centered, and even border on the latest developments in feminist film theory that attempt to radicalize the current masculinist and heterosexist symbolism of women's sexuality in mainstream texts. In other words Foster redefines sexuality as a fluid category -- not merely as a rigid and confining projection of what men want, but instead as an orchestration of female fantasy and desire. The reporter asks how she intends to change contemporary representation.
Foster replies, "I'm fascinated by the idea of putting two people in a room for 20 hours, finding out what they do when no one is around and filming it. I mean people do the weirdest things when they're alone" (Segell 79).

福斯特對於銀幕上女性情慾的呈現全然以女性為中心,甚至是擴及到近期女性主義電影理論發展的範疇,該理論是試圖改變主流文化女性情慾中的雄性與異性戀霸權.換言之,福斯特把性傾向的歸類定義為流動易變的,不是死板狹隘地投男性所好,而是依循女性的想望及慾望達到水到渠成.記者詢問她如何改變現行的方式.福斯特回答:我很想把二個人20小時放在一個房間裡,觀察他們在有拍攝與沒攝時是如何反應.獨自一人時,人總是會做出最奇怪的事.

28) So, in interviews, Foster apparently frames her thinking about sexual representation in terms of the boundaries between interior and exterior, public and private, in and out. She makes similar comments to Rolling Stone: "I have this fascination with public personae and private people.There's that juxtaposition of image versus intimacy" (Hirshen 89). This public/private quandary seems to structure Foster's cinematic intentions. Her fascination with public and private can be framed theoretically as well. She is studying the distance between representation and subject.

所以,在採訪中,福斯特顯然是把性慾的呈現,透過不同界限的觀點來看:內在的與外在的、公領域與私領域、不出櫃與出櫃.她在滾石雜誌也表達相似的說法:我很著迷於公眾的形象和私下的真性情.這是表象與實際感受之間的對立抗衡.公私領域的困境似乎構成福斯特的拍攝動機.她對公私領域現象的著迷,其原因可依此類推.她是在研究表象與目標對象之間的差距.

29) If Foster is ambiguous, then doesn't she use that "space of unknowing" to her advantage -- strategically aligning herself where she sees fit for the time or, better put, intentionally disaligning herself from any static position?

如果福斯特是雌雄莫辨的,難道她不曾運用這份「不能理解的距離」所帶來的好處,策略性地決定,什麼時候要融入一種固定的身份,什麼時候可以隨心所慾擺脫任何標籤.

30)The empowerment she receives from the loyalty of numerous camps certainly suggests this. This strategy may be why she is able to take on a role about gang rape, then direct a feature film, and then play a strong but feminine woman of the Reconstruction period.

她從各路人等獲得的忠心支持可以證明.這個策略或許可以解釋她能飾演一個被集體性侵的角色,又能導演一部劇情長片,還能演出美國南北戰後,堅強但很女性化的角色.

31) As suggested by the public reaction to her role in The Silence of the Lambs, Foster's liminal status has appeared to be most at stake at the time of that film's release. Thus, Staiger's analysis of this cultural event again becomes paramount to understanding Foster's persona. Staiger insists:

至於大眾對於她在<沈默的羔羊>的角色,福斯特模糊的性傾向在電影發行時卻造成嚴重危機.所以,Staiger對這項文化事件的分析再度成為了解福斯特銀幕形象重要的文章.Staiger堅言:

32) Thus, although Starling is a woman, she may not be a "normal" woman. We thus have a quadrant of gender and sexual preferences available in the film: Lecter: heterosexual male; female victims: (heterosexual) female victims; Gumb: homosexual male; Starling: homosexual female... In my analysis of this public discourse, the most apparent danger [as evidenced by social anxieties] was from incorporating or transgressing traditional oppositions.

「雖然Starling是女性,她可不是一般的女性.我們對片中的性別與性傾向可畫分四個面向:Lecter-異性戀男子;女性受害者-異性戀女子;Gumb-同性戀男子;Starling-同性戀女子....在我的論文分析中,最明顯的危險(根據社會焦慮所顯示)是混合,或是違背傳統的相對角色.」

33)According to Staiger, Foster's guilt by association with (characters) Lecter and, even more so, with Gumb, places her in an extremely problematic place within the conventional world of binary oppositions and rigid categories.

根據Staiger的說法,福斯特因為與片中Lecter聯結,甚至是與Gumb聯結,而招來非議,導致她在僵硬二分法的傳統社會中立於極為爭議的處境.

34) This article has been an effort to posit iconic inquiries and address them. As I have shown, Foster's images are constructed not only through her acting roles, nor only through her directorial choices, but also via her iconography that circulates through print media and fashion photography. Of course, in exploring mediations of Foster, one needs to take into account Foster's privileged status as an upper middle- class, ivy-league-educated, white woman. Perhaps, through her iconography, Foster exploits a position of identity.Acknowledging this privilege, I conclude however, with the suggestion that Foster's ambiguous and tenacious "unidentity" may be her public articulation of the problems associated with sexual boundaries and categories.

本文試圖去推論公眾形象的疑點,並提出說明.如同我所指出的,福斯特的形象不僅由她演出的角色,也不是只由她導演的作品所建立,還包括經由平面媒體及時尚攝影所流傳的圖像.當然,要解讀福斯特,還須考慮福斯特的特權身份:中上階級、長春藤聯盟的知識份子、白種女性.或許經由她的圖像研究,福斯特大膽建立出一種特性.就算她屬於特權身份,我還是要這樣定論,福斯特的雌雄莫辨,與堅決地「不被定性」可能是她在性慾的界限與歸類上產生問題的關鍵所在.


若隱若現的身影:上篇
若隱若現的身影:中篇


參考:茱蒂福斯特作品列表

The Liminal Iconography : part 2

The Liminal Iconography (若隱若現的身影:中篇)
by Christina Lane

12)What becomes evident about Foster's star persona is that it is able to simultaneously embody traits of masculine and feminine. The screenwriter of Little Man Tate sums up this split, saying, "She seems so small and sad; you want to protect her. Then you find out she's a pretty and intelligent woman who knows kick- boxing" (Corliss 72). Such a characterization illustrates how Foster projects a certain contradiction-- of weak and strong, feminine and masculine, protected and protector. Perhaps her popularity stems from the ways she personifies the interconnectedness and complexity of such apparent oppositions. And this projection gets played out intricately in portrayals of Foster's personal life, in her acting roles, and in the press in numerous ways.

很明顯地,福斯特的銀幕形象能夠同時包融陰陽剛柔.<Little Man Tate 我的天才寶貝(1991) >的編劇便提到這種性格分裂:「她看起來很憂鬱弱小;讓人想要保護她.接著你發現 她既美麗又聰穎,而且還會打拳擊.」上述描述勾勒出福斯特性格上的矛盾:懦弱與堅強、陰柔與陽剛、被保護者與保護者.或許她受歡迎的原因,是她如何將這些相異特質的關聯性與複雜度,內化成自己形象的方式.福斯特藉由私生活、演出的角色、媒體宣傳等不同方式,複雜地演繹出來.

13) Another related dualism that Foster throws into question is that of victim/heroine. In Taxi Driver, the young prostitute played by Foster is a victim of circumstances -- a runaway who seems forced into prostitution for survival. Similarly, in The Accused, Foster plays a working-class woman who is gang raped and then consequently blamed for her "loose" behavior. These characters look like typical victims on the surface, however, they usually persevere past the violence and trauma they experience, revealing a heroic quality.

福斯特雙重性格中最被探討的是:受害者與英雄.在<Taxi Driver 計程車司機(1976)>福斯特扮演的雛妓是環境的受害者:逃家在外,似乎是被迫接客維生.同樣地,在<The Accused 控訴(1988) >福斯特扮演勞工階級,受到集體性侵,還被歸咎於自己行為不檢點.這些角色表面上看起來是典型的受害者,但她們都能經歷肉體與心理的創傷而堅忍不拔,呈現英雄式的特質.

14) An image of Foster's personal life as constructed through mass culture reflects the same kind of split persona. In 1980, she was seen as a victim of John Hinkley Jr.'s obsession when he used his admiration for her as his excuse for shooting President Ronald Reagan. To tell her side of the story, Foster even wrote an account of her experience for Esquire magazine entitled "Why Me?" -- a definite tag of "victim" status. However, even though she was just starting out as a freshman at Yale University at the time of the shooting, she organized her own press conferences and publicity rose above the experience (Miller 29). Also putting her at odds with a victim image is her current reputation in Hollywood as a powerful icon and two-time Academy Award winner. In fact, it is rare to find Hollywood so unwaveringly in love with any screen actress. In her article entitled "Never a Victim," B. Ruby Rich comments on Foster's refusal to conform to Hollywood's equation of "woman equals victim." Rich proposes:

經由大眾媒體傳達出福斯特的私生活也是呈現分裂的性格.在1980年,她被視為辛克里事件的受害者.此人迷戀她,藉口表達對她的崇拜而槍擊美國霤根總統.為了表達這個事件,她這一方的說法,福斯特甚至為Esquire君子雜誌提筆寫文Why Me?(為何是我?)--十足的受害者身段.槍擊事件發生時,她只是剛上耶魯大學的新鮮人,卻能自己處理記者會和相關的公眾活動.後來她得到二次奧斯卡獎項成為好萊塢實力人物更與她之前受害者形象相反.事實上,很少見到好萊塢業界會那麼喜愛一個幕前的女演員.B. Ruby Rich在她的文章Never a Victim (不再是受害者),評論福斯特拒絕接受好萊塢的偏見:「女人等於受害者」,Rich女士提到:

15) In her case, though, Hollywood functioned as its own immunization: [Foster] became resistant to the artifices of glamour and the siren song of artificial femininity. She became her own woman, instead of theirs, with the unexpected result that the audience finally got to see on screen someone whose guts showed on her face. (57)

「雖然好萊塢對自主女性一向免疫,但是就福斯特的個案,她抗拒使用光鮮亮麗與人工化的妖嬈作為迷惑的手段.她是有自我主見的女性,而非人云亦云,結果出於意料之外,觀眾喜歡銀幕上這位毫無懼色的女演員.」

16) In other words, Foster's long history in Hollywood aids her in constructing a public/filmic image that suggests self-ownership, self-authorship, and, not least, heroic self-confidence.

換言之,福斯特在好萊塢的長期資歷幫助她建立自主、自立以及散發英雄式自信的形象,不論在大眾媒體還是電影作品上.

17) Perhaps it is Foster's mobility as an icon -- her ability to slide up and down the registers of masculine and feminine -- that encourages Hollywood's love affair with her. Of course, gender transgression does not necessarily correspond with mobility across lines of sexuality (i.e., when Foster appears masculine, she is not necessarily identifying herself as "butch").However, it is certainly Foster's mobile quality that positions her as a liminal figure in today's popular culture. Foster embodies a refusal to polarize binary oppositions.

或許這就是福斯特之所以成為偶像的變換能力--她能夠游移於陽剛或陰柔的領域--讓好萊塢愛上她.當然,違反性別的外貌不盡然與性傾向的跨界有關(例如,福斯特表現陽剛的樣子,不一定就是T)然而,就是因為福斯特的變換特質才讓她在現代流行文化中被視為性傾向若隱若現.福斯特是不接受男女兩極劃分的方式.

18) In fact, in some representations of Foster, her image denies easy categorization to the point of appearing neither masculine nor feminine, but androgynous. Her androgyny has been commented on in the popular press, both in her younger days and more recently. One article in American Film described childhood persona as "limp-haired, pre-pubescent
androgyny" (Miller 27). Several years later, in the same magazine, Julia Cameron had this to say:

事實上,福斯特表現出的形象不易歸類為陽性還是陰性,而是雌雄同體的.不論在她年輕時還是最近幾年,通俗的媒體一直討論過她雌雄同體的樣貌.American Film 美國電影曾描述她童年的銀幕形象是「頭髮鬆垮、青春期前的雌雄同體」.數年後,Julia Cameron 在同一本雜誌再度提到:

19) "Attribute it to whatever you want, but the fact remains, there is an androgyny to Foster's effect. Her bearing more closely resembles the crown prince than some spoiled princess. She's more Robin Hood than Maid Marian.... No one is calling her a sex symbol, but clearly she is a symbol of something." (48)

「不論你怎麼歸類,福斯特就是雌雄同體.她比較像是個加冠冕的王子而不是被寵壞的公主.她比較像是羅賓漢而不是瑪麗安.....沒有人稱她為性感象徵,但她顯然是象徵某種特質.」

20) What is Foster a symbol of Whereas some admirers would say it is androgyny, others label it within the purview of a related, yet less specific term- ambiguity. Jodie Foster has been discussed in relation to a predecessor of Hollywood successes, the 1930 film director Dorothy Arzner. In Judith Mayne's article, "Lesbian Looks", she talks about androgynous-looking Arzner, who was "outed" in the 1970s, in terms of what was/is often missing in discussions about her-- her "erotic connections with women" (106).

有些人說福斯特是雌雄同體,有些人則說雌雄莫辨福斯特曾被拿來各1930年代的電影前輩女導演Dorothy Arzner相提並論.在Judith Mayne的論文Lesbian Looks(女同樣貌),她提到這位同樣雌雄莫辨的Arzner(在70年代被發掘同志身份),她有同性性關係的事實常被略而不提.

21) Mayne highlights the way that Arzner was often portrayed through divided representations in publicity photos. On the one hand, she would be seen with machines associated with filmmaking and thus characterized as "the director," a masculine role. On the other hand, Arzner would be positioned with Hollywood actresses, implying her ability to relate to women and be one of them. In both instances, importantly, many visual cues would be readily available for spectators to read her lesbianism into the representation. However, these codes would always be shrouded in silence and invisibility. Hence, Arzner's ambiguity-- her unreadableness-- is what defined her. In Mayne's forthcoming book on Arzner, she highlights a parallel situation in which we have Jodie Foster, who, now that she is a director as well as an actress, often finds herself in multivariant representations (172-3).

Mayne特別指出Arzner常在媒體宣傳的照片中呈現分裂的形象.有時,她與攝影設備一起出現,傳達出導演身份:一種陽剛的的角色.有時,她與好萊塢女星併呈,暗示她是女性,所以有能力掌握女性同理心.在上述兩個實例,許多視覺上的暗示,都能讓觀察者將她判讀為女同.然而這些符碼總是被掩埋在聽而不聞視而不見.所以,Arzner的雌雄莫辨(無法判讀她)反而變成她的特色.在Mayne研究Arzner的著作,她特別將福斯特相提並論,她既是導演亦是演員,她的形象呈現更為多元複雜.

22) In fact, Foster's image often gets polarized in the media, as though she cannot be represented as an actress and a director at the same time. In an issue of Vogue she appears to be a famous star - her tousled hair looped into a bun at top of her head, and a bright smile planted on her face (11). However, the cover of Time magazine portrays her above the headline "A Director is Born" as very serious and critical (Corliss). In one frame, she is vulnerable to the scrutinizing "male gaze"; in another, she is the one doing the scrutinizing. Foster also dichotomizes the two images to reporters, saying that acting tends to be more "experience-oriented" and "free of structure," while directing requires "analysis" and "detached observation" (Corliss 72). She insists that she is involved in the constant effort of reconciling her heart and her head.

事實上,福斯特在媒體上的形象常常兩極化,彷彿演員與導演身份不能同時並存.她在Vogue某一期以明星姿態出現,將散髮高束髮髻,臉上笑容燦爛.但是在Time時代雜誌的封面,用標題"A Director is Born" (一個導演誕生了)呈現嚴肅的、批判的的形象.她在某個畫面中,是被動供男性凝視,但在另一個畫面中,她則是主動凝視的人.福斯特也同時不斷將這兩個形象在訪問中加以兩極化,表示表演傾向於經驗導向及自由發揮,而導演則須研究及分析觀察.她堅稱她常常要努力統整自己的感性與理性.

若隱若現的身影:上篇
若隱若現的身影:下篇

參考:茱蒂福斯特作品列表

2008/03/11

The Liminal Icongraphy : part 1

The Liminal Iconography (若隱若現的身影:上篇)
by Christina Lane

前言:
茱蒂福斯特在80年代末起一直是美國激進同志平權運動人士的目標對象,他們採取各種方式,希望茱蒂不論是出於自願還是非自願的方式,都能公開同志身份.那個時代正是愛滋病猖獗的階段,也是同志社群再度被污名化的時刻,美國同志社群採用這種激進的策略,有其歷史背景.

在大眾等著看熱鬧的情況下,也有人理智地把「是不是同志」的答案擺一邊,而是探討「為什麼」會認定對方是同志?這篇文章是女性主義電影學者Christina Lane發表於1995年1月” Journal of Popular Film and Television”.標題為:The Liminal Iconography.

Liminal本意是幾乎要跨入門檻;在人類學的概念則是指整個儀式中的過度階段;也有人應用在尚無法定論的身份認同.Iconography是圖像學,可譯作圖像研究.作者在1995年研究茱蒂福斯特為什麼被認定是同志,從茱蒂在電影及大眾媒體所呈現的公眾形像,來探討這些圖像的內涵.The Liminal Iconography 或許可譯為「撲朔迷離的圖像研究」,白話一點可譯作「若隱若現的身影」.

這是一篇很有參考價值的1995年「歷史文獻」,從茱蒂福斯特的個案,整理出我們的對公眾人物性傾向的聯想模式.很幸運地,當年文中提到茱蒂的形象符碼,到今日竟驗證成真,重讀這篇文章,份外感觸.或許,唯一該繼續討論的是,當代社會如何看待公眾人物對公開同志身份與否的權利與義務.

原文頗長,而且部份學術字彙較為艱澀,我想全文轉載,但又沒時間逐句翻譯,請容我用口語化方式重點說明,我若有空再回來修訂.

特別說明:我所看到的原文並未同時附有圖片,故文中所有配圖是我個人依據原作者的文句自行揣摩搭配.部份可能符合原文旨意,部份為我個人發想.

1)The discussion of lesbian representation often revolves around visual signifiers- - particularly how a woman might be identified as lesbian through her choice of fashion, display of political symbols, her language, and her conscious or unconscious reinforcement of stereotypes. Within this framework, I will examine the images of a public figure, Jodie Foster, who, whether willingly or not, has entered into this discourse about lesbian signifiers and self-representation.

討論女同的形象常是依賴外在的符碼 ,特別是她的打扮方式,有沒有展示政治立場的旗幟,她的談吐,以及有意無意地強化刻板印象.作者用這些架構去檢視茱蒂福斯特的公眾形象.不管她願不願意,她都無可避免被捲入討論代表女同符碼的論述中.

2)The sexuality of feminist director and actress Jodie Foster has been put into play as both visibly and invisibly lesbian since Michaelangelo Signorile, editor of Outweek, considered publicly identifying her as gay in his publication in 1991. However, I will argue that a certain strategic sexual liminality informs much of Foster's career-- than her persona encompasses such oppositions as masculine/feminine, public/private, gay/straight, in/out rather than submitting to their binary structure. (1) I intend to look at the conscious and subconscious cultural iconography surrounding her and attempt to identify ways in which she constructs her own image on the screen and through personal interviews. Although stars generally have minimal authority over their own images, I find it a valuable exercise to examine the way in which actors may mediate that authority through the press and Hollywood.

自從Outweek的編輯Michaelangelo Signorile於1991年在刊物中公然地宣稱茱蒂福斯特是同志,她的性傾向在她的作品中都成為女同,不論是有形或無形.但是作者認為,這種性傾向模糊的策略,被運用在福斯特的演藝職業,更甚於她融合兩極化的角色:陽剛/陰柔,公眾/隱密,同志/異性,不出櫃/出櫃.雖然電影明星通常少有控制自我形象的權力,但是從這次的研究中,作者發現演員從好萊塢及媒體中,掌握自我權力的可能性.

3)This article does not attempt to prove or disprove anything about Foster's sexual orientation, but rather to discover what signifiers, if any, suggest her liminal status as a popular icon for lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual communities. From the perspective of a heterosexual feminist, I interrogate the notion of stable gender identities, especially the possible decentering of gender and heterosexuality that goes on in the realm of cinematic representation. It is also my intention to explore whether Foster iconography offers ways to problematize current modes of thinking about lesbian representation.

作者並非要證明或反證福斯特的性傾向,而是要發掘是什麼樣的符碼會隱約暗示出公眾人物是同志,雙向戀,還是異性戀.作者從異性戀女性主義的觀點,質疑固定的性別認同,更消說在在電影領域中一直在進行著去除性別與異性戀的強勢地位.作者更想發掘福斯特的外在形象是否質疑了大眾認定女同形象的思考模式.

4)First, I will outline the short history of gossip and rumors that originally put Foster's sexuality into question publicly. The publication Outpost, known for its mandate to publicly identify ("out") gay, powerful people, circulated one if its "Absolutely Queer" posters with Foster on front. At the same time, Signorile of Outweek, a strong proponent of "outing," decided to write an article attacking Foster for acting in and celebrating The Silence of the Lambs when the villain was portrayed stereotypically as an effeminate, gay transvestite. In fact, rumor has it that an ex- girlfriend of Foster's considered writing an expose on her for Outweek. Cindy Carr of the Village Voice then in turn attacked Signorile for attacking Foster. Signorile writes about the controversy in his book, Queer in America, saying:

作者先簡述福斯特的性傾向遭流言質疑的經過.Outpost出版物素以曝光權力人士的同志身份而知名,他們張貼以"Absolutely Queer(絕對是酷兒)"為題的海報,並將福斯特放在前面.同一時間,強力支持曝光別人同志身份的Outweek編輯Signorile,打算攻擊福斯特,因為她演出<沈默的羔羊>,而片中的壞人被刻板地塑造成陰柔的男同志跨性別裝扮廦.曾有流言,福斯特的前女友考慮為Outweek寫篇文章來曝光她.接著Village Voice 村聲雜誌的Cindy Carr便為文攻擊Signorile對福斯特的作為.Signorile後來在他的著作"Queer in America"紀錄這段爭議事件.他寫道:

5)Lesbian activists with whom I'd regularly consulted with at the time told me that, because Foster was pretty and feminine, and because she was the epitome of a straight, WASP woman, the outing caused a curious backlash among women, gay and straight.

那時候我常討教的女同平權人士告訴我,因為福斯特既漂亮又女性化,而且她是異性戀與白人菁英(White Anglo-Saxon Protestant,WASP 白人盎格魯-撒克遜新教徒)的象徵,將她曝光可在女性,同志與異性戀中,同時引起衝擊.

6)Certain groups in the female backlash felt that Foster was being identified as gay because she is a strong woman; they felt it was wrong for gay activists to use her as a "sacrificial lamb" (Staiger 142). Janet Staiger has paid in-depth attention to this public identification as a cultural event, linking it to the critical response of The Silence of the Lambs. Staiger suggests that Foster "could be the lamb sacrificed in punishment for the film's expressed homophobia and repressed polymorphous sexuality" (153). In conjunction, Staiger proposes that because Foster's being identified as gay symptomatizes current cultural taboos, it is "more overdetermined linguistically, psychoanalytically, and culturally than it might appear" (144). The cultural codes embodied by Foster as (simultaneously or separately) a feminist, a femme lesbian, a butch lesbian, and a "good [heterosexual] girl," that is, someone who needs protection from the press and gay activists, are because of her liminality. Thus Foster's persona merits further exploration for understanding contemporary social reactions to certain signifying strategies and our cultural readings of those discourses.

有些女性團體認為福斯特因為很強悍而被視為女同;她們認為同志平權人士錯將她當作代罪羔羊.Janet Staiger深入觀察,認為這項公眾身份認同是個社會事件,是與批判<沈默的羔羊>聯結在一起.Staiger覺得福斯特變成代罪羔羊,是因為他們要懲 罰電影傳達恐同及壓抑不同性傾向.她指出因為福斯特視為女同而引起一連串的文化禁忌,在語言上、心理上、文化上顯示更為多元面向.由於她模糊的性傾向,不管福斯特身上的符碼(是同時,還是單獨)表現出她是女性主義、女同P、女同T,或是異性戀的乖女孩,她都像是需要保護於媒體及同志平權人士之外.因此要進一步探討福斯特的電影表演成就,以了解社會對這種形象塑造的反應,我們的文化如何解讀這種論述.

7)Let us now look at Foster's cinematic work. The film roles that an actress finds herself in or, as she acquires power in Hollywood, those she chooses for herself, maybe her most determinant strategy for constructing her image. Foster has shied away from playing traditional female characters, instead projecting a very complicated image. Even as a child, she always played stoic, distanced characters onscreen. Like the tomboy daughter in Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore and the 13-year-old prostitute in Taxi Driver, her characters are tough and precocious, having lived in a rough world. While most female child actresses were playing up their girlish sweetness, Foster appeared to be nonfeminine.

我們檢視福斯特的電影作品.有些角色是別人邀約,有些角色是她在好萊塢影響力增加後她自己爭取而來,這些角色選擇可能是她建立自己形象的長期策略.福斯特總是避免傳統的女性角色,而以複雜的形象取而代之.既使在童星時代,她一直都扮演禁慾的,疏離的人物.例如<Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore 再見愛麗絲 (1974)>像小男孩的女生,或是<Taxi Driver 計程車司機(1976>年僅13的雛妓.她的角色都很強悍而早熟,在艱困的世界中求生.大部份的女童星只是表現甜美的小女孩,福斯特卻一點也不女性化.

8)Foster's role choices did not change much as she grew into a woman. She continued to play characters such as the tough-girl victim of attempted rape in Five Corners, the gang-rape survivor in The Accused, and a federal agent tracking a serial killer in The Silence of the Lambs. In a 1991 Rolling Stone article she says, "There are some characters I can't do.. I don't know how to cry and be kidnapped. I don't know how to approach weak" (Hirshen 89).

福斯特成年後,她的角色選擇並未改變.她持續扮演,例如<Five Corners 五角戀愛(1987)>裡被意圖強暴的剛強受害者,或是<The Accused 控訴(1988)>中被集體性侵的倖存者,還有<沈默的羔羊>追緝連續殺人犯的聯邦探員.她在1991年Rolling Stone 滾石雜誌受訪時說道:有些角色我演不來....我不會哭泣,不知如何被綁架.我不知道如何表現弱者.


9)The persona constructed by her film characters carries over into publicity spreads and fashion photos of her. Often Foster is posed wearing markers of "butch" lesbianism, such as denim, leather, or men's clothing. This is particularly true in photos that came out around the release of The Accused -- a film in which Foster's character goes from long, flowing hair to short, hacked hair after experiencing physical and institutional rape (perhaps a stereotypical plot point). If is also true in photos that depict her as a film director, a conventionally masculine role. In the late 1980s, Elle magazine labeled Foster's fashion choices as "lumberjack chic" (Miller 27). [2]

她的電影形象在媒體宣傳及時尚照片上依然保持一致.通常福斯特會穿著牛仔褲、皮衣,甚至男性的衣著,呈現那些所謂T的裝扮.在<The Accused 控訴(1988)>發行期間所流傳的宣傳照特別如此--福斯特在片中的角色,在經歷性侵之害,將一頭飄逸長髮削成參差不齊的短髮(可能是刻板化的劇情安排).在描述她是電影導演時,傳統上這是陽剛的工作,呈現出來的照片同樣是很T的.在80年代末期,Elle雜誌將她的裝扮方式歸類為「伐木工風格」.

10)Perhaps it is a symptom of the media's tendency to feminize almost any female star, or perhaps it reflects Foster's own range and flexibility, but she often has also projected a persona that is quite feminine. Her "femme" image is readily observable in the fashion photography of such magazines as Glamour, Harper's Bazaar, and Vogue. Photos such as those that appear in the 1989 Harper's Bazaar "America's Ten Most Beautiful Women" issue feature Foster's hair and makeup, painting her as a sophisticated and idealized beauty (on cover and 326).In one of Foster's most recent fashion spreads (Vanity Fair, May 1994), she conforms to the "waif-like" standard precedented by Kate Moss. With one arm barely covering her naked breasts, her skin appears extremely pale and her eyes gloss over sleepily. 

或許把每個女明星都變得女性化是媒體的通病,或許它是展現福斯特表演的廣度和彈性,她常呈非常女性化的形象.在時尚雜誌如Glamour, Bazaar, 和 Vogue的時尚照片中,她的女性化形象是顯而易見.在1989年Bazaar「美國十大美女」專題,強調福斯特的髮型及化妝,把她塑造成風華絕代的美女.在1994年5月的Vanity Fair浮華世界的時尚照片,她依Kate Moss的風格來裝扮.她的一隻手幾乎掩不住胸前春光,皮膚白淨,故意雙眼惺忪. 

11)In interview after interview, Foster discusses her overwhelming need to be liked, to be approved of. Also, she told Rolling Stone that her idea of "soft porn is a Williams Sonoma catalog. Anything to do with the kitchen I'm a sucker for" (Hirshen 88). By feminist ideals, she has certainly not shed standards of feminity. Foster made a substantial break from her tough-girl persona in the spring of 1993 when she starred in Sommersby, a historical love story based on The Return of Martin Guerre in which she offers a softer, more romantic side of herself. Whereas Sommersby is one of the only films in which Foster is paired up with a leading male love interest (to which I will come back later), even after, he dies and she presumably lives out the rest of her life alone. Foster's 1994 role in Maverick as Mel Gibson's love interest/rival characterizes her as a southern belle, but one who is driven by wealth, not love. Foster's Annabelle sees men as subjects (objects?) for manipulation, and this perspective means that the audience never knows where Annabelle actually stands in terms of the film's plot.

許多採訪中,福斯特表達她被喜愛,被肯定的強烈需求.她還告訴滾石雜誌:「廚房用具型錄(Williams Sonoma catalog)對我而言是春藥.只要是廚房裡的東西,我都愛得要死.」就女性主義的典範來看,她並未擺脫女性傳統特質.她在1993年春天,暫時從強悍女性的銀幕形象中抽身.她演出<Sommersby 男兒本色 (1993)>,這是一部根據「馬丹.蓋赫返鄉記」改編的愛情史劇.她在片中表現她柔軟浪漫的一面.當時<Sommersby 男兒本色 (1993)>是她唯一與當紅男主角配對演情侶(這個稍後再說).但是他最後死了,她可能是孤獨度過餘生.福斯特於1994年在<Maverick 超級王牌(1994) >以南方佳麗之姿扮演梅爾吉伯遜的愛人及對手,但這個角色是受金錢驅策,而非愛情.福斯特扮演的安娜貝視男人為操控的對象,從這個角度來看,觀眾永遠搞不懂安娜貝根據劇情,到底有沒有真心愛過男方.

若隱若現的身影:中篇
若隱若現的身影:下篇

參考:茱蒂福斯特作品列表

 
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